Volume 50 part 3 (December 2005)


General Issues
Continents and Countries

Book descriptions consist of: author, title, publisher, place and year of publication, number of pages, original price; followed by a brief summary of the contents.
All listed books are available in the IISH library.

General Issues


Hassan, Robert. The Chronoscopic Society. Globalization, Time and Knowledge in the Network Economy. [Digital Formations, Vol. 17.] Peter Lang, New York [etc.] 2003. 187 pp. € 30.00.
The combination of neoliberal economic globalization and the information technology revolution has created an "information ecology", an environment that affects individuals, culture and society in dialectical ways comparable to the natural and built environment, argues Dr Hassan in this study. He analyses how this information ecology has generated its own temporality, which he labels "network time", that has influenced mass culture and civil society dramatically since the 1970s by changing the mechanics and institutions of knowledge production in society and thereby altering how and what we think, and what we consider to be useful and legitimate knowledge.

Hauck, Gerhard. Die Gesellschaftstheorie und ihr Anderes. Wider den Eurozentrismus der Sozialwissenschaften. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 2003. 209 pp. € 20.50.
In a critical analysis of a dozen influential European and American social scientists and social science theories, Professor Hauck examines the Eurocentrism that, as he contends, is immanent to most social science research. Included are critiques of the classical positivism of Comte, Mill, Pareto and Durkheim; colonial racism in the imperial era and Eurocentric elements in development theories; the "aristocratic" social theory of Wilhelm Mühlmann; modernization theories in the 1960s, attribution of internal responsibility in the 1980s and theories of Western exceptionalism in the 1990s; the universality of (scientific) knowledge in the thought of Popper, Habermas, Foucault and Lyotard; rational choice theory; and the development theory of Niklas Luhman.

Sprenger, Rudolf (Helmut Wagner). Bolshevism. [I]ts Roots, Role, Class View and Methods. Transl. from German by Integer. Redline Publications, Sawbridgeworth 2004. iv, 37 pp. € 5.00; $7.00.
This pamphlet is a reprint of the original, early 1930s version (which appeared in English translation in 1939) of the essay by Rudolf Sprenger, pen name of Helmut Wagner (1904-1989), a German radical-left social democratic journalist. In his critical analysis of the nature of the Bolshevist revolution, Sprenger was one of the first to go back to Lenin's analysis What is to be done? (1902), in which Lenin formulated the idea of a vanguard party made up of professional revolutionaries. In his introduction to this edition, Adam Buick sketches the historical context of Sprenger's analysis.


Decolonization. Perspectives from now and then. Ed. by Prasenjit Duara. [Rewriting histories.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2003. xvii, 312 pp. £17.99.
This textbook brings together five original contributions and thirteen reprinted essays on the decolonization process. After an introduction by the editor that sketches the recent developments in views on and historiography of decolonization, five writings by statesmen and intellectual leaders of the decolonization movement (Sun Yat-Sen, Ho Chi Minh, Jawaharlal Nehre, Frantz Fanon and Jalal Al-I Ahmad) are presented in the first part. Other essays deal with the relation between imperialism and nationalism; socialist anti-imperialism; nationalism and the labour movement in postwar French Africa; and women's identities in colonial and postcolonial Korea.

The Decolonization Reader. Ed. by James D. Le Sueur. Routledge, London [etc.] 2003. x, 462 pp. £18.99.
This textbook reader brings together 22 recent essays on key issues of European decolonization in Asia and throughout the continent of Africa, whilst aiming to provide a critical definition of the field. The essays, previously published between 1988 and 2001, revolve around eight general themes: the definition of decolonization; metropolitan and international politics; economy and labour; nationalism and anticolonialism; race and ethnicity; gender and sexuality; culture and contests; and postcolonialism.

Frosini, Fabio. Gramsci e la filosofia. Saggio sui Quaderni del carcere. [Per Gramsci, I.] Carocci editore, Roma 2003. 198 pp. € 17.50.
This book introduces readers to Gramsci's Quaderni del Carcere. Based on the critical edition of the Quaderni from 1975, it comprises two parts. The first part describes the origins of the philosophical research conducted in the Quaderni. The second part reviews the entire philosophical content of the work based on central themes such as: historical materialism, ideas about Croce, relations between philosophy, politics and common sense and Taylorism. The first part was presented previously at a seminar about the lexicon of the Quaderni, organized by the International Gramsci Society Italia.

Irish Immigrants in the Land of Canaan. Letters and Memoirs from Colonial and Revolutionary America, 1675-1815. Ed. by Kerby A. Miller and Arnold Schrier. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2003. xxvii, 788 pp. Maps. £55.00. (Paper: £22.50.)
This collection brings together letters, memoirs and other documents that reflect the experiences and perspectives of men and women who migrated from Ireland to North America between the 1660s and 1815. The documents are presented with extensive introductions placing them in their historical contexts and are arranged according to the themes of the background and causes of emigration and the processes of Irish migration to the New World, followed by chapters covering various occupations migrants took up: farmers and planters; craftsmen, labourers and servants; merchants, shopkeepers and peddlers; and clergymen and schoolmasters. A separate chapter is devoted to immigrant experiences with politics and war.

Linden, Marcel van der. Transnational Labour History. Explorations. [Studies in Labour History.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2003. xiv, 226 pp. £47.50.
In this volume, Professor van der Linden brings together twelve of his essays, ten of which were previously published between 1988 and 2000, on the theme of transnational labour history. In his introduction, the author summarizes a number of recent trends in labour history (a stronger focus on cross-border processes and comparisons and a shift from a Eurocentric to a truly international approach) and describes the role of the research department at the International Institute of Social History in this process. Included are essays on the national integration of European working classes; revolutionary syndicalism, international trade unionism and theoretical and methodological aspects of comparative history.

Manufacturing and Labour. Ed. by Michael G. Morony. [Formation of the Classical Islamic World, Vol. 12.] Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2003. xxxi, 346 pp. Ill. £75.00.
This volume in a series that offers a critical selection of published research on the formative period of Islamic history (i.e. between 600 and 950) contains five articles on manufacturing and nine on labour in the classical Islamic world. Included are articles published between 1960 and 1982 (as well as one that was originally published in German in 1894) that offer either syntheses of the state of knowledge in the field or new research results. Articles originally in Arabic, French or German have been translated.

The Modern Social Sciences. Ed. by Theodore M. Porter and Dorothy Ross. [The Cambridge History of Science, Vol. 7.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2003. xxv, 762 pp. £95.00; $125.00.
This seventh volume of a series of eight on the history of science aims to provide a history of the concepts, practices, institutions and ideologies of the social sciences since the eighteenth century. Included are 43 essays on the historical development of social knowledge, its philosophical assumptions, its social and intellectual organization and its relation to fields such as science, politics and the professions; contributions on the development of the main social disciplines (psychology, economics, sociology, anthropology, political science, geography, history and statistics); and essays on social sciences in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America.

Mokyr, Joel. The Gifts of Athena. Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy. Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 2002. xiii, 359 pp. £22.95.
In this study of the expansion of technological and scientific knowledge in relation to economic development, Professor Mokyr argues that the explosive growth in Western Europe from the eighteenth century onward was driven not only by the appearance of new technological ideas but also and more so by the improved access to these ideas available to society at large. He aims to show that changes in the intellectual and social environments and the institutional background in which knowledge was generated and disseminated brought about an "Industrial Enlightenment" that was a necessary precondition for the Industrial Revolution, followed by sustained economic growth and continuing technological change.

Morgan, W. John. Communists on Education and Culture 1848-1948. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 2003. xiv, 250 pp. £50.00.
This study explores the place of education and culture in a variety of communist ideologies, focusing on the role of education in developing working-class and revolutionary consciousness and the part that communists played as militants and as theorists in that development. Professor Moran first traces the origins of independent workers' education and its theoretical and political foundations in the works of Marx, Engels and their successors; second, he explores international communists' contributions to the field, especially those of John Maclean, Antonio Gramsci, Georg Luckács and Mao Zedong. Finally, he deals with Soviet communists' stand on education (Lenin, Trotsky, Gorky and Stalinism).

The Slavery Reader. Ed. by Gad Heuman and James Walvin. Routledge, London [etc.] 2003. xvi, 800 pp. $45.95.
This textbook reader brings together 37 writings on Atlantic slavery, published between 1962 and 2000, with the majority appearing in the 1990s. The essays cover a period from the late fifteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century and are arranged according to the following main themes: the origins and development of American slavery; work; family, gender and community; slave culture; slave economy and material culture; resistance; race and social structure; and Africans in the Atlantic world. The essays in each theme are preceded by an introduction by the editors.

Staging Growth. Modernization, Development, and the Global Cold War. Ed. by David C. Engerman, Nils Gilman and Mark H. Haefele. [Culture, Politics and the Cold War.] University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst [etc.] 2003. xiii, 283 pp. £15.50.
The nine essays in this volume deal with the issues of modernization and development and their emergence as the dominant paradigm in the United States in the 1950s, first within the intellectual debate and then as a major element in US Cold War foreign policy. The first four articles trace the theoretical and ideological rise of this paradigm. Two articles examine various ways that modernization was used in US propaganda, while the last part explores transnational cases where modernization and development policies were applied and considers various reactions on the part of non-Western countries.

Van Goethem, Geert. De Internationale van Amsterdam. De wereld van het Internationaal Vakverbond (IVV) 1913-1945. Houtekiet, Antwerpen; AMSAB-Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, Gent 2003. 360 pp. Ill. € 24.95.
This revised edition of a dissertation (University of Amsterdam, 2001) examines the history of the International Federation of Trade Unions (IFTU), from its origins in 1913 and its foundation in 1919 to the end of World War II. Following a general chronological overview of the rise of the IFTU, Dr Van Goethem, who recently contributed a chapter on the IFTU to a volume on the history of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) (see IRSH, 46 (2001), p. 491), deals with various thematic issues central to the IFTU's history: its relations with the communists, international trade secretariats, the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the American trade union movement; the battle against fascism and Nazism; and the position of women in the international trade union movement. Short biographies of the main actors are appended.


Davis, Colin J. Waterfront Revolts. New York and London Dockworkers, 1946-61. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2003. x, 246 pp. Ill. $39.95.
In this comparative study of dockworkers' militancy in New York City and London in the first decade after World War II, Professor Davis explores the structural and cultural backgrounds of the rank-and-file estrangement from union leaders that led to a wave of work stoppages and wildcat strikes. Examining the ethnic and racial profiles of workers in both ports, the governments' and employers' fear of communist influence and the intimate links between the unions and political administrations and in some cases organized crime, the author concludes that dockworkers wielded considerable influence in the postwar industrial arena on both sides of the Atlantic.

Favretto, Ilaria. Alle radici della svolta autonomista. PSI e Labour Party, due vicende parallele (1956-1970). Pref. di Donald Sassoon. [Studi storici Carocci, 54. Storia internazionale del XX secolo. Serie promossa dalla Fondazione Isituto Gramsci, 4.] Carocci editore, Roma 2003. 299 pp. € 22.60.
This is a comparative study of the Labour Party and the Partito Socialista Italiano about the period 1956-1970. The author takes issue with the Italocentrist idea in Italian historiography, which holds that the course of the PSI deviated from the ones taken by other socialist parties. According to Favretto, both the PSI and the Labour Party entered a reformist stage after 1956, as a consequence of the vast social-economic changes. Both parties devised a new policy with respect to the public sector and the middle classes and came to power in 1963 and 1964, respectively. The author examines the successes and shortcomings of these terms in power.

Guiat, Cyrille. The French and Italian Communist Parties. Comrades and Culture. [Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions.] Frank Cass, London [etc.] 2003. xix, 209 pp. £39.50.
This is a comparative study of the French and Italian Communist Parties in the period from the early 1960s to the early 1980s. Focusing on two communist strongholds in France and Italy, Dr Guiat aims to test empirically the general held hypothesis that the French Communist Party remained an orthodox, sectarian, Leninist party and was much closer to the Soviet Union than the Italian Communist Party, which had become far more moderate and leaned towards reformism. He finds that his case studies tend to confirm this prevailing view, but that the two parties nevertheless remained very comparable phenomena.

Hoffmann, Stefan-Ludwig. Geselligkeit und Demokratie. Vereine und zivile Gesellschaft im transnationalen Vergleich 1750-1914. [Synthesen. Probleme europäischer Geschichte, Band 1.] Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2003. 144 pp. € 19.90.
This textbook aims to offer a general, transnational overview of the role of civic societies for the development and stability of democracy in the period between the Enlightenment and World War I. Dr Hoffmann analyses the common basis of these societies in political-theoretical works from Tocqueville to Weber and compares the role of civic societies in the United States, Great Britain, France, Russia and the German-speaking nations including the Austrian-Hungarian empire to explore how civic societies functioned amid the varying social and political customs of the different nations.

Kirk, Neville. Comrades and Cousins. Globalization, Workers and Labour Movements in Britain, the USA and Australia from the 1880s to 1914. The Merlin Press, London 2003. x, 230 pp. £15.95.
In this study, Professor Kirk brings together three comparative essays on workers' and labour movement politics and ideologies in Britain, the United States and Australia during the period of "new imperialism", from the 1880s to 1914. The first chapter explores the differences and cross-national similarities in the political trajectories of mainstream labour movements and institutions in Britain and the US during the 1890s and 1900s; the second chapter deals with the history of workers and the labour movement in Australia between 1890 and 1914; and the last essay focuses on British socialist attitudes to race and class and empire.

Continents and Countries



Stora, Benjamin. Algeria 1830-2000. A Short History. Transl. by Jane Marie Todd. Foreword by William B. Quandt. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 2004. xv, 283 pp. $39.95. (Paper: $19.95.)
This narrative comprehensive history of Algeria from the beginnings of formal colonialism in the 1830s to the present day is based on a three-volume French edition, published between 1991 and 1994. Professor Stora presents a detailed review of the political, economic and social course of events in the colonial period and during the prolonged war of independence. He has adapted the original French edition, has added an introductory chapter on the colonial period (1830-1954) and has updated the book on the internal struggle between the Algerian government and the Islamic fundamentalists.

South Africa

Holdt, Karl von. Transition from below. Forging Trade Unionism and Workplace Change in South Africa. University of Natal Press, Pietermartizburg 2003. xi, 325 pp. € 22.00.
Focusing on the Highveld Steelworks in the town of Witbank, this study explores the work-floor experience of the transition from the apartheid regime to the democratically elected ANC government in 1994. Dr von Holdt examines the chaos and ungovernability in the workplace and community in the transition phase and the pivotal role of the trade union in the steelworks in reconstructing a more democratic social order and explores how divisions - between political activists and shop stewards, between migrant outsiders and urban locals - and contestation within the union led to open conflict and violence among workers.

Maloka, Eddy Tshidiso. The South African Communist Party 1963-1990. [Africa Institute research paper, no 65.] Africa Institute of South Africa, Pretoria 2002. 81 pp. $29.95.
This booklet examines the history of the South African Communist Party (SACP) in a period rarely studied, 1963-1990. After the arrest of the first-generation leaders, many leaders were forced into exile. Dr Maloka examines the SACP leadership's relationship with the African National Congress (ANC), its struggle to preserve the movement in exile, ideological, strategic and tactical issues and the internal organizational dynamics.


Beyond Imagined Communities. Reading and Writing the Nation in Nineteenth-Century Latin America. Ed by Sara Castro-Klarén and John Charles Chasteen. Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, DC; The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore [etc.] Baltimore 2003. xxv, 252 pp. $45.00. (Paper: $22.95.)
The eight essays in this collection start out as a critique of the argument put forward by Benedict Anderson in his influential book Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (1983) that Latin American nationalisms can be traced to local circulation of newspapers and the tour of duty of colonial administrators. The first four contributions by historians examine social situations; the last four criticize Anderson's argument in the field of production of cultural objects. See also Michiel Baud's review essay in this volume, pp. 485-498.

Forment, Carlos A. Democracy in Latin America, 1760-1900. Volume I, Civic Selfhood and Public Life in Mexico and Peru. [Morality and Society Series.] University of Chicago Press, Chicago [etc.] 2003. xxix, 454 pp. Maps. $35.00; £24.50.
In this first volume of a series on the development of democracy in Latin America in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Professor Forment focuses on the political, economic and civic organization that emerged in this period in Mexico and Peru. He argues that these local and civil organizations in public life show the presence of a civic democracy in Latin America (which he labels Civic Catholicism) that formed an alternative to liberal market and state-oriented forms of public life. See also Michiel Baud's review essay in this volume, pp. 485-498.

Larson, Brooke. Trials of Nation Making. Liberalism, Race, and Ethnicity in the Andes, 1810-1910. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2004. xiii, 299 pp. Ill. Maps. $70.00; £45.00. (Paper: $24.99; £17.99.)
Focusing on four republics in the Andes region (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia) in the nineteenth century, this study explores the process of nation making in relation to the position of the indigenous peasant majority. Professor Larson analyses the role played by Creole ruling elites, mestizo middle classes and the native peasantry in the often violent struggles over land, community and ethnic identity and the interplay of liberalism, racism and ethnicity in the formation of these "republics without citizens". See also Michiel Baud's review essay in this volume, pp. 485-498.

Pena González, Miguel Anxo. Francisco José de Jaca. La primera propuesta abolicionista de la esclavitud en el pensamiento hispano. [Bibliotheca Salmanticensis, Estudios 252.] Publicaciones Universidad Pontificia, Salamanca 2003. 433 pp. € 24.00.
This study is about the Capuchin missionary Francisco José de Jaca (ca. 1645 - ca. 1689), who became the first Spaniard in Latin America to speak out against slavery. The author deals first with perceptions of slavery over the centuries and subsequently covers the views of the contemporary theologians and philosophers to whom Jaca referred and provides a sketch of slavery during Jaca's day. Next, he discusses his life and works, after which he analyses Jaca's treatise against slavery, of which a first critical edition appeared in 2002. He concludes by discussing the position of the Capuchin order about slavery. An extensive bibliography about slavery concludes the book.

Studies in the Formation of the Nation-State in Latin America. Ed. by James Dunkerley. Institute of Latin American Studies, London 2002. viii, 298 pp. £14.95; $19.95.
The eleven contributions in this volume, based on papers presented at a conference organized in June 1999 at the Institute of Latin American Studies at the University of London, deal with various issues concerning the nature of the nation-state in Latin America from the early nineteenth century onward. Combining a range of analytical approaches, the essays comprise both case studies on various countries, historiographical reviews and thematic contributions, on themes such as the role of violence, the ambiguous role of liberalism and the scope and quality of the nation-state. See also Michiel Baud's review essay in this volume, pp. 485-498.


Nishida, Mieko. Slavery and Identity. Ethnicity, Gender, and Race in Salvador, Brazil, 1808-1888. [Blacks in the Diaspora.] Indiana University Press, Bloomington [etc.] 2003. xiii, 255 pp. $39.95.
During the nineteenth century, the port city of Salvador, Brazil, witnessed rapid development and transformation, with, first, the end of the slave trade and then the abolition of slavery, and Brazil's transition from colony to monarchy to republic. Focusing on African slaves, freemen and freeborn of African descent, this study explores the varied ways in which people at the bottom of the social hierarchy used identity and identity creation to adapt to the rapidly changing world around them.


Boyer, Christopher Robert. Becoming Campesinos. Politics, Identity, and Agrarian Struggle in Postrevolutionary Michoacán, 1920-1935. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2003. xii, 320 pp. Ill. £45.95.
Campesinos, the poor rural population, have played a major political role in revolutionary and post-revolutionary developments in twentieth-century Mexico. Focusing on the state of Michoacán, Professor Boyer has reviewed oral histories, archival documents and partisan newspapers to examine how the rural populace entered the political sphere through the interaction of post-revolutionary ideologies and grassroots agrarian militancy during the 1920s and 1930s and argues that the campesino identity refers not to indigenous people or rural proletarians but to a class-like social category. See also Michiel Baud's review essay in this volume, pp. 485-498.

United States of America

Davis, David Brion. Challenging the Boundaries of Slavery. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2003. 115 pp. £12.95.
In the three essays in this book, based on the Nathan I. Huggins lectures held in 2002, Professor Davis deals with a number of central issues in the history of American slavery. In the first essay, he sets American slavery against the background of the general history of slavery from the ancient world to the era of explorations. In the second essay he takes as a focal point the year 1819 when legal, religious and moral conflicts over slavery arose that augured the revolutionary changes leading to the Civil War. In the last essay, he examines the African-American impact on abolitionism.

Dawley, Alan. Changing the World. American Progressives in War and Revolution. [Politics and Society in Twentieth-Century America.] Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 2003. x, 409 pp. $19.95.
This study of the American Progressive movement focuses on the international inspiration and interests of its leading figures in the period of World War I and its aftermath. Professor Dawley explores the involvement of leading reformers such as Jane Addams and Robert LaFollette in the major international issues of this period, especially in the international peace movement, the relation to the domestic plans for social reforms and civic engagement and the deep divisions within the American Progressive movement.

Fink, Leon. The Maya of Morganton. Work and Community in the Nuevo New South. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2003. xiii, 254 pp. Ill. $34.95; £26.50. (Paper: $17.95; £13.95.)
Focusing on a community of Guatemalan immigrants working in a poultry processing plant in Morganton, North Carolina, this study explores the changes brought about by Latino labour migration the US South in the 1990s, and the ways in which migrant workers use their traditions and local community for empowerment in the era of globalization. Professor Fink examines how the Mayan refugees from Guatemala joined forces with Mexican workers and local allies in North Carolina to struggle for safer working conditions and social justice in a long-term clash with their employer.

Guglielmo, Thomas A. White on Arrival. Italians, Race, Color, and Power in Chicago, 1890-1945. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2003. ix, 280 pp. Ill. £35.00.
This study examines the role of the elements of race, colour and ethnicity for Italian immigrants in the process of acculturation and integration in the period of the mass Italian immigration in the United States from the late nineteenth century to the end of World War II. Focusing on Chicago as one of the main centres of Italian immigration and labour, Professor Guglielmo explores the status of Italians in the city's racial hierarchy and its impact on the opportunities available to immigrants. He argues that whiteness proved to be the Italians' most valuable asset, despite the many forms of discrimination they had to endure.

Hahn, Steven. A Nation under our Feet. Black Political Struggles in the Rural South. From Slavery to the Great Migration. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2003. viii, 610 pp. Ill. £22.95.
Covering the six decades from just before the Civil War to the rise of Black Nationalism of the 1920s, this study examines the development of a black political culture in the South. Focusing on rural African Americans, Professor Hahn aims to demonstrate the importance of kinship, labour and communication in the process of black working-class political mobilization. He argues that through the phases of the Civil War, Reconstruction, emigrationism, biracial electoral alliances and eventually the Great Migration, a distinctive black political consciousness emerged that linked the Black Nationalism in the 1920s to the local political culture under slavery.

Higbie, Frank Tobias. Indispensable Outcasts. Hobo Workers and Community in the American Midwest, 1880-1930. [The Working Class in American History.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2003. xi, 255 pp. Ill. $18.95; $44.95.
Hobos, the seasonal workers who travelled through the United States jumping on freight trains, have become etched in American imagination as either romantic adventurers or degenerate outsiders. In this history of hobo workers in the Progressive Era, Dr Higbie draws on life histories, research by contemporary social reformers and the organizing materials of the Industrial Workers of the World. Combining labour history and cultural criticism, he aims to illustrate how these so-called marginal figures were integral to the communities they inhabited temporarily and to the cultural conflicts over class, masculinity and sexuality that they embodied.

Korstad, Robert Rodgers. Civil Rights Unionism. Tobacco Workers and the Struggle for Democracy in the Mid-Twentieth-Century South. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2003. xii, 556 pp. Ill. $55.00; £41.95. (Paper: $24.95; £18.95).
Focusing on the local labour movement in the tobacco industry in North Carolina in the 1940s, this study examines how African American tobacco workers combined their fight for better working conditions and wages with the struggle for civil rights. Professor Korstad aims to show how the civil rights unionism that emerged in this period and provided the foundation for the civil rights movement was eventually defeated by the anticommunism of the Cold War and automation of the industry. He argues that the defeat of this combined movement for labour and civil rights had profound implications for race relations and equal rights in the workplace.

Lee, Erika. At America's Gates. Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill [etc.] 2003. 331 pp. Ill. $55.00 (Paper: $19.95.)
Professor Lee examines in this study the effects of the Chinese exclusion laws (beginning with the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882) on the Chinese immigrants, as well as on the development of the United States into a "gatekeeper nation". Adopting the perspective of Chinese immigrants as well as that of American immigration officials, she explores how immigrant identification, border enforcement, surveillance and deportation policies were extended beyond any previously known procedures in the United States and shows the impact that this practice had on the lives of Chinese immigrants, Chinese Americans and immigration officials.

Sanger, Margaret. The Woman Rebel, 1900-1928. Ed. by Esther Katz. Ass. eds: Cathy Moran Hajo and Peter C. Engelman [The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger, Vol. 1.] University of Illinois Press, Urbana [etc.] 2003. xxxviii, 512 pp. Ill. $65.00.
This is the first of a four-volume edition of selected papers that traces the life and career of Margaret Sanger (born Higgins) (1879-1966), the renowned birth control activist, feminist and social reformer. Consisting largely of letters and including diaries, articles and speeches as well, this volume documents Sanger's formative years, from her working-class childhood, and nurse's training, through her early socialist involvement to her adoption of birth control as an essential element of women's rights.



He, Faping. Struktur und Funktionsweise des chinesischen Arbeitsmarktes. Der Gestaltungsprozess des Arbeitsmarktes unter dem wirtschaftlich-sozialen Strukturwandel in der VR China seit 1978. [Arbeit, Technik, Organisation, Soziales/Work, Technology, Organization, Society, Band 21.] Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 2003. 224 pp. € 36.40.
Based on a combination of a segmentation theory of the labour market and an institutional analysis, this dissertation (University of Osnabrück, 2003) explores the economic and social changes in China since 1978 and their effects on the emergence of a labour market. Based on an analysis of the structure and functioning of the contemporary Chinese labour markets, Dr He examines the causes of and possible solutions to the structural problems of the Chinese labour market, which is characterized by high unemployment, combined with an inadequate social security system.

Yan, Yunxiang. Private Life under Socialism. Love, Intimacy, and Family Change in a Chinese Village 1949-1999. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2003. xvi, 289 pp. $55.00. (Paper: $21.95.)
Based on eleven years of extensive fieldwork in a village in northeast China, Professor Yan explores in this study family change and the transformation of private life in rural China from 1949 to 1999. This study focuses on aspects that most studies of family life, according to the author, tend to overlook: emotion, desire, intimacy, privacy, conjugality and individuality. He concludes that rural private life has undergone a dual transformation over the past five decades: the rise of the private family, within which the personal lives of individual women and men thrive.


Fleischmann, Ellen L. The Nation and its "New" Women. The Palestinian Women's Movement, 1920-1948. University of California Press, Berkeley [etc.] 2003. xv, 335 pp. $65.00.
This study examines the emergence and development of the Palestinian women's movement in the period of the British mandate and analyses the women's role in the struggle against British colonialism and against Jewish settlement. Professor Fleischmann explores the social, cultural and economic contexts within which this women's movement operated and aims to show what this movement - led primarily by urban, educated women from the middle and upper classes of Arab society - accomplished within the political arena.


Hashimoto, Kenji. Class Structure in Contemporary Japan. [Japanese society.] Trans Pacific Press, Melbourne 2003. xi, 254 pp. A$99.95; US$69.95; £48.00, (Paper: A$44.95; US$29.95; £19.99.)
Based on data from the Social Stratification and Mobility (SSM) project, conducted in Japan every ten years since 1955, this study aims to demonstrate the existence of a variety of classes in contemporary Japanese society. According to Professor Hashimoto, the concept of class has become obsolete in most Japanese social research in part as a result of the myth of the egalitarian society in Japan. He argues that the four-class model - consisting of a capitalist and a working class, as well as a new and an old middle class - applies best to contemporary Japanese society and offers the best framework for its interpretation.

South Korea

Koo, Hagen. Korean Workers. The Culture and Politics of Class Formation. Cornell University Press, Ithaca [etc.] 2001. xii, 240 pp. Ill. $45.00; £29.50. (Paper: £11.50.)
Based on personal memoirs, union reports and interviews, this study analyses working-class experience in South Korea during the very rapid industrialization over the past forty years. Professor Koo aims to show how the first generation of industrial workers endured despotic working conditions, and how radical militancy in the nascent trade-union movement brought about improved the working conditions and contributed to democratization in South-Korean politics and society. See also Seung-kyung Kim's review in this volume, pp. 513-516.

Soonok, Chun. They Are Not Machines. Korean Women Workers and Their Fight for Democratic Trade Unionism in the 1970s. Ashgate, Aldershot [etc.] 2003. 214 pp. £45.00; $89.95.
This study aims to offer a first-hand account of the struggle of women textile and garment workers in South Korea in the 1960s and 1970s for democratization and workers' rights. The author was a garment worker as a young girl, and her mother was one of the leaders of the women workers' movement that greatly influenced the democratization process in South Korea, leading eventually to the nationwide labour uprising in 1987. See also Seung-kyung Kim's review in this volume, pp. 513-516.


Christliche Arbeiterbewegung in Europa 1850-1950. Hrsg. von Claudia Hiepel und Mark Ruff. [Konfession und Gesellschaft. Beiträge zur Zeitgeschichte, Band 30.] Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2003. 239 pp. € 20.00.
The eleven contributions in this volume aim to take stock of recent historical research on the Christian labour movement in Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Switzerland and Italy in the period 1850-1950. The authors adopt as a common perspective the position the Christian labour movement has attained as a third option, alongside liberalism and Marxism, which developed in a broader Christian and often specifically Catholic subculture or milieu.

Écrire l'histoire des femmes en Europe du sud, XIXe-XXe siècles. [Writing Women's History in Southern Europe, 19th-20th Centuries.] Sous la dir. de Gisela Bock et Anne Cova. Celta Editora, Oeiras 2003. vii, 183 pp. € 15.75.
The sixteen contributions to this volume, of which three are in English and the rest in French, aim to assess the current state of scholarship on women's and gender history in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece and France. Based on a conference organized in September 1999 in Arrábida, Portugal, the first seven essays offer a more general overview of the state of women's history in the aforementioned countries, while the last nine essays deal with recent case studies in the field of women's and gender history in Portugal.

Experiencing Wages. Social and Cultural Aspects of Wage Forms in Europe since 1500. [International Studies in Social History.] Ed. by Peter Scholliers and L.D. Schwarz. Berghahn Books, New York [etc.] 2003. viii, 280 pp. Ill. $75.00; £50.00. (Paper: $25.00; £15.00.)
Covering a number of European countries and ranging from the sixteenth century to the 1930s, the eleven contributions to this volume address various aspects of wage forms and the ways people were paid for their work. The themes included are wage frequency; the amount of the wage paid in non-monetary forms (traditional perquisites, community relief); individual or group payment; relationship between wages and effort and between reward, effort and leisure. Some of the essays also examine how wages might have had a different meaning for women, children and the elderly.

Hartman, Mary S. The Household and the Making of History. A Subversive View of the Western Past. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2004. xi, 297 pp. £45.00. (Paper: £16.99.)
This study conveys a new perspective on the late-marriage pattern, as described in the Hajnal thesis (1965). Professor Hartman argues not only that this pattern explains why early capitalism took root in northwest Europe, but also that it originated much earlier than is commonly thought. She traces the emergence of this late-marriage system to the Middle Ages and contends that in addition to leading to the unique economic development of northwest Europe, it resulted in apparently universal beliefs in the importance of gender differences and of a sexual hierarchy favouring men. See also Wally Seccombe's review in this volume, pp. 499-501.

Haupt, Heinz-Gerhard. Konsum und Handel. Europa im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2003. 176 pp. Ill. € 17.90.
This is an introductory overview of consumer history in nineteenth and twentieth-century Europe. Professor Haupt deals chronologically with the origins of the modern consumer society and its economic and social prerequisites, the role of the consumer goods industry in economic development and consumption as a factor in modernization during the nineteenth century; the preconditions for twentieth-century mass consumption and its role in societal change.

The Leader Cult in Communist Dictatorship. Ed. by Balázs Apor, Jan C. Behrends and Polly Jones [e.a.] Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 2004. ix, 298 pp. £50.00.
The fifteen contributions in this volume are based upon papers presented at the conference "Stalin and the lesser gods: The leader cult in communist dictatorships in comparative perspective (1926-1961)", which was organized at the European University Institute, Florence, in May 2003. The authors examine the nature of leader cults in the USSR and Eastern Europe as a political, sociological and cultural phenomenon. The subjects addressed include the place of the leader cult in art and literature, the adaptation of the cult for children and different national groups, and the way the Stalin cult was exported to Eastern Europe, where highly distinctive cults emerged around Rákosi in Hungary, Bierut in Poland, Tito in Yugoslavia and Hoxha in Albania and, finally, the impact of de-Stalinization on these cults.


Hemmerijckx, Rik. Van Verzet tot Koude Oorlog, 1940-1949. Machtsstrijd om het ABVV. VUBPress, Brussel; AMSAB-Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, Gent 2003. 444 pp. € 24.55.
This dissertation (Free University Brussels, 2000) explores the Belgian socialist trade union movement during the crucial years 1940-1949 and the struggle for power between communists and socialists within the trade union federation Algemeen Belgisch Vakverbond (ABVV) that started from its origins in 1945. Dr Hemmerijckx examines the different attitudes of socialist and communist trade unionists towards the Nazi occupation, the resistance activities particularly among Walloon trade unions, communist attempts to gain control over the newly formed trade union federation immediately following World War II and the influence of the Cold War.


Andress, David. The French Revolution and the People. Hambledon and London, London [etc.] 2004. xviii, 301 pp. Ill. £19.99.
This social history aims to give a synthetic overview of the position of peasants, artisans and people living on the margins in urban and rural France at the eve of and during the French Revolution. Based on secondary literature, Dr Andress argues that popular grievances and reactions were pivotal in the events and outcome of the Revolution at all stages. See also Stephen Miller's review in this volume, pp. 501-503.

Coffey, Joan L. Léon Harmel. Entrepreneur as Catholic Social Reformer. [Catholic social tradition.] University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, 2003. x, 340 pp. Ill. $48.00
This is a biographical study of the French industrialist and Catholic social reformer Léon Harmel (1829-1915). Harmel inherited a spinning mill that he turned into a model factory in the form of a Christian corporation, an ethical business practice that captured the attention of Pope Leo XIII. According to the author, it was the Pope's personal relationship with Harmel that inspired his encyclical Rerum Novarum and paved the way for the Christian democratic movement.

Delaunay, Quynh. Société industrielle et travail domestique. L'électroménager en France (XIXe-XXe siècle). [Logiques Sociales.] L'Harmattan, Paris [etc.] 2003. 443 pp. € 33.00.
With this study of the history of the development and implementation in households of electrical home appliances in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Dr Delaunay offers an alternative interpretation of the history of industrialization and industrial society in France in this period. With the focus on electrical home appliances, the emphasis is on the role of women in the household and as consumers and on domestic labour, aspects of industrial society that the author believes are often insufficiently explored in historiography.

Galfré, Charles. Histoire Sociale de l'Arsenal de Toulon (de l'Ancien Régime à la IVe République). Préf. de Jean-Marie Guillon. Les Editions de la Nerthe, Ollioules 2003. 468 pp. Ill. € 23.00.
The port of Toulon has been the location of the main arsenal of the French navy since the early seventeenth century. Much of the working population of Toulon was employed by the arsenal, which dominated the town's social and labour history. This study sketches the history of the arsenal from its origins to the 1950s from the perspectives of its workers and workers' movement in 36 short chapters in chronological sequence, reviewing the highlights in the history of labour in the arsenal.

Lefebvre, Philippe. L'invention de la grande entreprise. Travail, hiérarchie, marché. France, fin VIIIe - début XXe siècle. [Sociologies.] Presses Universitaires de France, Paris 2003. 310 pp. € 25.00.
In this study of industrial development and division of labour in France from the end of the eighteenth to the beginning of the twentieth century, Dr Lefebvre sets out to explore the origins of and the reasons behind the increasingly hierarchical organization of enterprises. Focusing on the organization of labour in a number of sectors in various periods, he criticizes both Adam Smith's division of labour theory and the theories of Marx and Chandler. Basing himself on the work of Oliver E. Williamson about the theory of organizations, the author aims to develop a new theory to explain the increasing importance of hierarchy in the organization of labour in this period.

Maza, Sarah C. The Myth of the French Bourgeoisie. An Essay on the Social Imaginary, 1750-1850. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2003. x, 255 pp. £26.50.
This essayistic study analyses the social order in France between 1750 and 1850 and French perspectives on it, especially on the social class of the bourgeoisie. Professor Maza argues that in the historiography the term "bourgeoisie" has been used for a large and very diverse part of society, from the richest bankers to struggling artisans and shopkeepers. She aims to show, however, that no group ever identified itself as bourgeois, as the bourgeoisie for the French has functioned as a critical counter-norm, an embodiment of materialism, self-interest, commercialism and mass culture.

Schiappa, Jean-Marc. Les Babouvistes. Aspects de l'implantation de la conjuration babouviste. Amis de Gracchus Babeuf, Saint-Quentin 2003. 606 pp. € 55.00.
This abridged and revised edition of a doctoral thesis (Paris-I, Sorbonne, 1992) explores in depth the social and political backgrounds of the political movement around Babeuf and his conspiration des Égaux. Dr Schiappa examines the Babouvistes both in Paris and in the provinces, the repression of the conspiracy and its ideological background. In the appendices he has included an overview of the social origins of the conspirators.

Tackett, Timothy. When the King Took Flight. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2003. xi, 270 pp. Ill. £16.50.
Professor Tackett uses in this study the detailed story of the failed flight of King Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette from revolutionary Paris on the night of 21 June, 1791, and the related events as a focal point for his interpretation of the French Revolution. The author argues that Louis' flight reshaped popular attitudes toward kingship, while at the same time intensifying fears of invasion and conspiracy, and thus paved the way toward the subsequent Reign of Terror. Emphasizing the contingent character of the events of June 1791, he presents the power of individual events to alter the course of the French Revolution.


Faul, Gerhard. Sklavenarbeiter für den Endsieg. KZ Hersbruck und das Rüstungsprojekt Dogger. Dokumentationsstätte KZ Hersbruck, Hersbruck 2003. 174 pp. Ill. € 13.00.
From 1943 onward, the Nazi leadership started to relocate the German armament industry to underground locations. One of these locations was to be built in mine galleries in the mountain area east of Nuremberg, for which forced labourers were deployed. This study explores the history of the "Dogger defence project", as it was named, and the Hersbruck concentration camp, where almost 6,000 forced labourers, both prisoners in SS custody and foreign forced labourers, were housed.
Gottschalk, Karin. Eigentum, Geschlecht, Gerechtigkeit. Haushalten und Erben in frühneuzeitlichen Leipzig. [Geschichte und Geschlechter, Band 41.] Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 2003. 306 pp. € 34.90; SFR 58.60.
This dissertation (University of Kassel, 2002) investigates the relation between ownership, gender and law of inheritance in the city of Leipzig in the early modern period. Focusing on the period 1620-1680, Dr Gottschalk shows how in Saxony until the mid-seventeenth century household goods were legally considered women's property, inherited in the female lineage. She argues that with the emergence of the centralist, bourgeois state, regulations in the field of property rights and inheritance changed drastically to the disadvantage of the social and economic position of women.

Grundfragen der Sozialpolitik. Die Diskussion der Arbeiterfrage auf Regierungsseite und in der Öffentlichkeit. Bearb. von Wolfgang Ayass, Florian Tennstedt und Heidi Winter. [Quellensammlung zur Geschichte der deutschen Sozialpolitik 1867-1914; II. Abt.: Von der Kaiserlichen Sozialbotschaft bis zu den Februarerlassen Wilhelms II (1881-1890), Band 1.] Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2003. XXXIV, 573 pp. € 92.00; S.fr. 150.00.
This is Volume 1 in the second part of a series of source editions launched in 1966 on German social security policies in the period 1867-1914 (see IRSH, 42 (1997), p. 327, and 47 (2001), p. 531 for Volume 2). This second part covers the period 1881-1890. The selection of texts in this volume document (the origins of) key policy documents and statements from both the government and other parties involved in social issues in this period, including the drafts of the imperial social address of Wilhelm II in 1881, correspondence and diary entries of key actors, through the February decree of the emperor leading to Bismarck's resignation in 1890.

Huhn, Willy. Der Etatismus der Sozialdemokratie. Zur Vorgeschichte des Nazifaschismus. Ça ira, Freiburg 2003. 222 pp. € 18.00.
This volume brings together a radical critique of German social democratic ideology, "Etatismus - 'Kriegsozialismus' - 'Nationalsozialismus' in der Literatur der deutschen Sozialdemokratie", by Willy Huhn (1909-1970), a German radical Marxist and leftist communist intellectual. Originally published in 1952 in the German journal Aufklärung, Huhn interprets in this essay the development of German social democratic ideology as logically leading to Nazism. Included are also a hitherto unpublished autobiographical essay, "Bilanz nach zehn Jahren (1929-1939)" (1939), an introduction to Huhn's thought by Clemens Nachtmann, a previously published article by Huhn on Marx's own interpretation of communism (1950), a biographical sketch of Huhn by Christian Riechers, a bibliographic overview of Huhn's work and an epilogue by Joachim Bruhn.

Die Jahre 1911 bis 1914. Bearb. von Karl Erich Born &134;, Irene Feldmann, Reiner Flik, Hansjoachim Henning [u.a.], unter Mitarb. von Peter Hüsges [Quellensammlung zur Geschichte der deutschen Sozialpolitik 1867-1914. IV Abt.: Die Sozialpolitik in den letzen Friedensjahren des Kaiserreiches (1905-1914). 4. Band, 3. Teil.] Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2002. xxvii, 888 pp. € 99.00; SFR 162.00.
This is the third part of the fourth volume of the fourth section of this source edition on social policy in Imperial Germany (see IRSH, 40 (1995), p. 171 for a previous part of this volume). This fourth section deals with social policy in the decade before World War I (1905-1914), and this part focuses on the events and developments in the crucial year 1912. Central elements in the 342 documents selected include the massive strike in the Ruhr region in the spring, unemployment benefits and the struggle between Christian and free trade unions.

Klassen, Angela. Mädchen- und Frauenbildung im Kaiserreich 1871-1918. Emanzipatorische Konzepte bei Helene Lange und Clara Zetkin. [Spektrum Politikwissenschaft, Bd. 25.] Ergon Verlag, Würzburg 2003. 151 pp. Ill. € 22.00.
This study compares the ideas on emancipation and education of girls and women of two politically different representatives of the German women's movement: Helene Lange of the liberal bourgeoisie and Clara Zetkin of the socialist women's movement during the Wilhelmine era (1871-1918). Mrs Klassen aims to show that in Zetkin's thinking the role of women was primarily that of a politically active companion and militant comrade, responsible for the political education of her children, whereas Lange's image of women revolved around femininity and motherhood.

Koonz, Claudia. The Nazi Conscience. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2003. 362 pp. Ill. £19.95.
Based on an extensive reading of Nazi writings on race and propaganda materials, this study explores the ways in which Nazi racial popularizers contrived the infrastructure and rationale for genocide in the period 1933-1939. Professor Koonz analyses how in this period Nazi public culture developed from the long-time vulgar antisemitism into a racial ideology that combined racial fear and ethnic pride and seemed credible to the vast majority of ordinary Germans. Using various media, from academic research, documentary films and exhibits, to mass-market magazines and humour, Nazi propagandists thus prepared the German public for wartime atrocities and genocide.

Metzler, Gabriele. Der deutsche Sozialstaat. Vom bismarckschen Erfolgsmodell zum Pflegefall. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart [etc.] 2003. 272 pp. € 22.90; S.fr 40.20.
This study offers a concise chronological overview for general readers of the origins and development of the German welfare state, from the beginnings of national social security legislation under Bismarck, to the present state of crisis in the German social security system. In the concluding chapter, Dr Metzler discusses the threats to the social security system from the international processes of economic liberalization and globalization and chances for a successful reform, for example through increasing cooperation in the framework of the European Union.

Schreckenberg, Heinz. Ideologie und Alltag im Dritten Reich. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] 2003. 573 pp. Ill. € 55.10.
This study aims to give a critical overview of the origins and development of the national socialist ideology and Weltanschauung and the ways it gradually permeated everyday life in Germany in the period 1933-1945. Using over 300 illustrations (photographs, drawings and facsimiles), including many from private collections, Dr Schreckenberg aims to give insight into the microstructures of the "political religion" of Nazism and the ways in which it eventually made for massive readiness for all-out war and genocide.

Süss, Dietmar. Kumpel und Genossen. Arbeiterschaft, Betrieb und Sozialdemokratie in der bayerischen Montanindustrie 1945 bis 1976. [Quellen und Darstellungen zur Zeitgeschichte: Bayern im Bund, Band 4.] Oldenbourg Verlag, München 2003. vii, 504 pp. € 39.80.
This study explores the changing relation between workforce, employers and social democratic government in the three decades after World War II in Germany in the case of two large mining industry companies in Bavaria. The central questions that Dr Süß aims to answer are what were the changes in social position, working conditions and mentality for workers in this period of economic growth and deproletarianization; what were the results of the increasing institutionalization of labour relations; and what were the consequences of this course of events in the class-specific labour organizations and the social democratic milieu at large?

Great Britain

Brown, Alyson. English Society and the Prison. Time, Culture and Politics in the Development of the Modern Prison, 1850-1920. The Boydell Press, Woodbridge [etc.] 2003. vii, 205 pp. £50.00; $85.00.
Covering the years between 1850 and 1920, this study examines the evolution of the English prison system and the way in which the system was utilized to deal with the poor, the disaffected and political opponents. Focusing on the manifold disturbances in English prisons in this period, Dr Brown argues that English society and authorities failed to establish a legitimate system of punishment, turning the prisons into sites of continuous power struggles, waged between prisoners, prison staff and prison authorities and instituting a pattern of "revolving door" custody for petty crimes.

Capp, Bernard. When Gossips Meet. Women, Family, and Neighbourhood in Early Modern England. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2004. vii, 398 pp. £60.00. (Paper: £25.00.)
Focusing on women of poorer and middling classes in England in the period from the mid-sixteenth to the early eighteenth century, this study explores the important role played by networks of close friends ("gossips") in giving women a social identity beyond the narrow domestic sphere and providing companionship and support. Professor Capp examines the micropolitics of the household and women's agency in neighbourhood politics, exercised by shaping local public opinion and exerting pressure on parish officials and through the role of informal female juries. Thus, the author contends, women could be significant in shaping their own lives and the local community in a patriarchal culture.

Cordery, Simon. British Friendly Societies, 1750-1914. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke [etc.] 2003. XIII, 230 pp. Ill. £45.00.
This study of the British Friendly Societies from the mid-eighteenth century to the eve of World War I aims to place organized mutual insurance societies as central actors in the formation of labour politics and labour culture in this period. Aiming to build on P.H.J.H. Gosden's seminal work The Friendly Societies in England. 1815-1875 (1961) (see IRSH, 8 (1963), p. 162), Professor Cordery argues that Friendly Societies used direct political pressure to promote the ideology of voluntarism and shape self-help legislation in Britain, and that they contributed to changing gender norms through their use of rituals and ceremonies.

Epstein, James. In Practice. Studies in the Language and Culture of Popular Politics in Modern Britain. Stanford University Press, Stanford (Cal.) 2003. 206 pp. £16.95.
Professor Epstein brings together in this volume six essays that all draw on or are a revised version of previously published work. Focusing on popular politics in Britain during the period of industrialization, the author sets out to define a middle ground between E.P. Thompson's concept of cultural materialism and the postmodern view of culture as a system of signs and codes. In the first two essays he evaluates and critiques the work of Gareth Stedman Jones and Patrick Joyce, while in the last four articles he offers case studies of British political culture in the age of the French Revolution, the role of space in historical reasoning and the role of gentlemen leaders within popular movements.

Gee, Austin. The British Volunteer Movement 1794-1814. [Oxford Historical Monographs.] Clarendon Press, Oxford [etc.] 2003. 323 pp. £55.00.
During the French wars between 1798 and 1814, the British government armed up to 400,000 civilians in the Volunteer Movement: infantry, yeomanry cavalry and armed associations helped secure national defence and internal order. This study explores the social, political and military aspects of this movement. Contesting the more longstanding, extensive historiography of the movement, Dr Gee argues that the Volunteers were not so much a conservative, antirevolutionary force of order, but independent-minded non-combatants, who valued their autonomy; and that this local self-government nonetheless enhanced rather than endangered loyalty to the state.

Harrison, Shirley. Sylvia Pankhurst. A Crusading Life 1882-1960. Aurum, London 2003. viii, 291 pp. Ill. £20.00.
This is a biography for a general readership of Sylvia Pankhurst (1882-1960), daughter of the legendary suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst, and a radical activist for women's rights, as well as several other causes. Mrs Harrison, who had the full cooperation of the Pankhurst family and access to a number of previously unpublished documents, gives a comprehensive, chronological overview of Sylvia Pankhurst's life and political activism, emphasizing the course of her personal life.

Joyce, Patrick. The Rule of Freedom. Liberalism and the Modern City. Verso, London [etc.] 2003. XII, 276 pp. £18.00.
Focusing on the cities of London and Manchester, Professor Joyce sets out in this study to write a socio-cultural history of the liberal governance of the nineteenth-century state and city. Applying and elaborating Foucauldian concepts of governmentality, he explores how the liberal "rule of freedom" produced a certain kind of citizens and patterns of social life by transforming both the material form of the city and the ways it was inhabited and imagined. For this, he examines both "artefacts" (maps and censuses, sewers and markets, public libraries and parks) and more theoretical interpretations of city planning and civic government.

Linebaugh, Peter. The London Hanged. Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century. Verso, London [etc.] 2003. xxix, 492 pp. Ill. £15.00.
This is the second, slightly expanded, edition of Professor Linebaugh's seminal study of crime and capital punishment and its relation to the rise of the capitalist order in eighteenth-century London. The author's central argument is that the emergence of capitalism and the concurrent rise of modern wage labour caused major shifts in property and customary rights and thus led to progressive criminalization of the poor, with a substantial increase in the number of public executions as a direct result. In his afterword to this second edition, Professor Linebaugh reflects on the reactions to the first edition of this study and places the history of capital punishment in relation to property in the context of recent global trends.

Mayhall, Laura E. Nym. The Militant Suffrage Movement. Citizenship and Resistance in Britain, 1860-1930. Oxford University Press, Oxford [etc.] 2003. xiii, 218 pp. Ill. £30.00.
This study explores the British suffragette movement by analysing the suffragettes' militancy in the context of Victorian and Edwardian political culture, the place of the women's movement in this culture and the rise of the concept of resistance. Dr Mayhall highlights the differences in strategy among militants, both in their use of violence and in their acceptance or rejection of the authority of the law, and their definitions of the relationship between individuals and the state. Thus, she argues, campaigns for women's parliamentary enfranchisement figured prominently in the debates over citizenship and resistance in Britain in the period 1860-1930.

Taylor, Barbara. Mary Wollstonecraft and the Feminist Imagination. [Cambridge Studies in Romanticism, Vol. 56.] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [etc.] 2003. xvi, 331 pp. £45.00; $65.00.
With A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), Mary Wollstonecraft has become an icon of modern feminism. In this study of Wollstonecraft's thought, Dr Taylor argues that her work can alternatively be seen as part of the utopianism of British radical Enlightenment. Putting Wollstonecraft's work in the context of her intellectual world and personal history, the author aims to show that her feminist aspirations were part of a revolutionary programme for universal equality and moral perfection rooted in the radical-Protestant Enlightenment.


Basso, Lelio. Scritti scelti. Frammenti di un percorso politico e intellettuale (1903-1978). A cura di Mariuccia Salvati e Chiara Giorgi. [Studi storici Carocci, 51.] Carocci editore, Roma 2003. 326 pp. € 23.70.
This anthology comprises 66 texts by Lelio Basso (1903-1978). The writings primarily concern events that were current at the time they were written and cover the period from 1923 to 1978 and reflect the author's political struggle. Previously published theoretical articles about politics and marxism and contributions to his journal Problemi del Socialismo are not included here. The articles are grouped according to a number of themes: autobiographical; freedom and totalitarianism; party and class; constituent and constitution; citizens and institutions; human rights and rights of nations. All Basso's texts may be consulted at http://www.leliobasso.it.

Carlo Cattaneo. Temi e interpretazioni. Saggi di Arturo Colombo, Maria Corona Corrias, Antonio Delogu [e a.] A cura di Maria Corona Corrias. [Politeia, Scienza e pensiero, 20]. Centro Editoriale Toscano, Firenze 2003. 244 pp. € 15.00.
This volume comprises eight contributions, based on a scholarly meeting held in 2002 in Cagliari (Sardinia) in honour of the 200th anniversary of the birth of Carlo Cattaneo. The contributions highlight the political ideas of Cattaneo and his relation to Sardinia. They cover Cattaneo's relationship with the Sardinian federalist G.B. Tuveri; his essay about Sardinia "Della Sardegna antica e moderna"; his political and social ideas; his influence on the Sardinian democrats Bellieni and Lussu who were active during the Interbellum; interpretations of Cattaneo and his work by Bobbio and Della Peruta after World War II; his economic views; and his perceptions about the role of women.

Damiano, Cesare [e] Piero Pessa. Dopo lunghe e cordiali discussioni. La storia della contrattazione sindacale alla FIAT in 600 accordi dal 1921 al 2003. Pres. di Piero Fassino. Pref. di Aris Accornero. Ediesse, Roma 2003. 414 pp. € 20.00. [incl. CD-Rom]
The title of this book, which means "After long, cordial discussions", refers to the preamble that preceded several of Fiat's collective labour agreements in the late 1960s. These years were one of the most conflict-ridden periods in a corporate history permeated with particularly heated social conflicts. Following the introduction about the history of the social accords at Fiat, the authors devote a chapter per decade to analysing the realization of the accords in the period 1921 to 2003. The cd-rom included with the book features the text of all 589 collective labour agreements, the reports of the negotiations and a collection of documents and photographs.

Didier, Charles and Galzerano, Giuseppe. I Capozzoli e la rivolta del Cilento del 1828. Galzerano, Casalvelino Scalo 2003. 135 pp. Ill. € 11.00.
This is the third consecutive book that this publisher has issued about the 1828 uprising in Cilento (see IRSH, 44 (1999), p. 142). In an extensive introduction, using new archival material, Giuseppe Galzerano explores the role of the Capozzoli brothers, who travelled to Cilento in 1829 to revive the uprising. The book also features the translation of a report that Charles Didier published in La revue des deux mondes in 1831, as well as a chapter from his book Rome souterraine. The appendix contains a facsimile reproduction of the two original French texts.

Drake, Richard. Apostles and Agitators. Italy's Marxist Revolutionary Tradition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2003. xi, 273 pp. Ill. £29.95.
In this study of the Marxist revolutionary tradition in twentieth-century Italy, Professor Drake analyses the ideological principles behind the revolutionary political terror of, among others, the Red Brigades that raged throughout the country between 1969 and 1984. He traces their ideology of terror back to defining figures (including Carlo Cafeiro, Antonio Labriola, Benito Mussolini and Antonio Gramsci), who grounded a revolutionary tradition, in which the social disasters in Italy became associated with the country's intellectual politics, a brand of "anarchist communism" surfaced, and violence became important in the ideology.

Fogu, Claudio. The Historic Imaginary: Politics of History in Fascist Italy. University of Toronto Press, Toronto [etc.] 2003. xii, 267 pp. Ill. $60.00; £40.00.
Spanning the entire period of the Italian fascist regime, this study examines the visual modes of historical representation, from commemorations and monuments to exhibitions and mass media. Professor Fogu argues that the fascist historic imaginary was intellectually rooted in the actualist philosophy of history of Giovanni Gentile and was aimed at overcoming both Marxist and liberal conceptions of the relationship between historical agency, representation and consciousness. As such, it was, according to the author, a core element of fascist ideology.

Imbruglia, Girolama. Illuminismo e storicismo nella storiografia italiana. [Saggi Bibliopolis, 54.] Bibliopolis, Napoli 2003. 496 pp. € 26.00.
This book traces the origins and course of the debate about the Enlightenment in recent Italian historiography. The beginning dates back to Croce's Storia d'Europa from 1932, which disclosed a positive revaluation of the Enlightenment as a source for political action. Several historians then elaborated on this perspective, each one exploring a separate issue. Mr. Imbruglia discusses Federico Chabod and his polemic with Arnaldo Momigliano from 1959; Benedetto Croce; Adolfo Omodeo; Ernesto De Martino; Franco Venturi; and Rosario Romeo. The annex includes 55 letters from the correspondence between Franco Venturi and Delio Cantimori from the period 1945-1955.

Knight, Patricia. Mussolini and Fascism. [Questions and Analysis in History.] Routledge, London [etc.] 2003. 135 pp. Ill. € 6.99.
This textbook gives a concise overview of the main issues and topics in the history of Italian fascism, its origins, the role of Mussolini and his rise to power, the emergence of the totalitarian fascist state, its foreign policy and its role in World War II. Dr Knight also compares Italian fascism with other interwar dictatorships. Brief, edited selections of source materials are included.

Longoni, Giuseppe M. L'eredità dei cappellai. Memoria, mito e realtà di un'avventura del lavoro. SilvanaEditoriale, Milano 2003. 191 pp. Ill. € 18.00.
At the initiative of the Camera del Lavoro Territoriale di Brianza an exhibition was organized in Monza near Milan in 2003 featuring iconography, publications and objects relating to the felt hat industry in Italy, especially in Monza. This exhibition catalogue presents the hat industry from three different perspectives: the history of the dissemination of felt hats as products for mass consumption and the transformation from old craftsmanship into modern industry; a history of hat makers such as Borsalino and other persons from this industry, as well as of the organization of the work; and, focused on Monza, a history of various local firms and trade organizations.

La memoria del lavoro. Atti del convegno di studi storici. A cura di Angelo Bendotti e Eugenia Valtulina. [Studi e ricerche di storia contemporanea, 59.] Istituto bergamasco per la storia della Resistenza e dell'età contemporanea, Bergamo 2003. 302 pp. € 29.90.
This collection comprises 16 contributions to the colloquium "La memoria del lavoro", which was held in Bergamo in 2001. The objective of the gathering was to reflect on the memory of workers as a primary source for understanding the emergence of contemporary Italian society and on the memory of workers who manifested their commitment to radical social reform on the job and in their political and syndicalist efforts. The contributions are devoted to themes concerning syndicalism, work and workers, labour migration and labour photography. The book concludes with a round table about the disappearance of the central position of labour from scholarly studies.

Orsello, Gian Piero. Antonio Labriola. Il pensiero del filosofo e l'impegno del politico: nel centenario della morte. [Scienze sociali.] Edizione Universitarie di Lettre Economica Diritto, Milano 2003. 214 pp. € 19.00.
This study about the life and work of Antonio Labriola (1843-1904) appeared in recognition of the centenary of his death. The author aims to emphasize that Labriola's change of course from liberal democracy to marxist socialism resulted from an extended maturation process, in which criticism of the theory of the state was paramount. This study tracks the different stages in his course of development to scholarly and later to democratic socialism and various themes in his ideas and considers Croce's and Gramsci's evaluations of Labriola's philosophy. A bibliography of Labriola's Works concludes the book.

Pompilio, Giordano. La Camera del Lavoro di Alessandria dalle origini alla prima guerra mondiale. (Pref. di Maurilio Guasco.) [Isral, Collana di storia contemporanea, 10.] Le Mani, Recco 2003. 187 pp. Ill. € 14.00.

From 1891 Camere del Lavoro were established in the industrialized parts of Italy according to the example of the French Bourses du Travail. Though initially intended as labour exchanges and arbitrators in labour disputes, they were soon influenced by the socialist party. They figured in the cultural edification of the proletariat and in some cases became participants in the political struggle and the trade union movement. This study describes the history of the Camera del Lavoro at Alessandria in Piemonte, from its establishment in 1901 until 1914. The author bases his work on new source material and compares local trends with national ones.

Rossi, Laura. Il movimento sindacale a San Marino (1900-1960). [Quaderni del Centro Sammarinese di Studi Storici, 23.] Università degli Studi della Repubblica di San Marino, San Marino 2003. 188 pp. € 15.50.
This study about San Marino's trade union movement starts with the cooperative and mutualist associations that the socialists established at the end of the nineteenth century. The author then traces the history of trade organizations of agricultural and industrial workers, which were especially active between 1919 and 1922, and covers the fascist and post-war periods as well. She examines the conflictual relationships between categories of workers, and between workers and employers, the respective roles of the different organizations, the political and trade union issues and the internal conflicts in the Confederazione del Lavoro. She also addresses the relationship of the trade unions with political factions in San Marino.

The Netherlands

Bokkel, Jan Gerhard Arnold ten. Gidsen en genieën. De Dageraad en het vrije denken in Nederland 1855-1898. [Guides and geniuses. De Dageraad and freethought in the Netherlands 1855-1898.] FAMA Maçonnieke Uitgeverij, Dieren 2003. 255 pp. Ill. € 22.50.
This dissertation (Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2003) describes the foundation, in 1856, and rise of De Dageraad, the first free thought organization in the Netherlands in its historical context of nineteenth-century deïsme, positivism, progressive protestant theology and scientific criticism of the Bible and the emergence of socialism and materialism. Dr ten Bokkel explores not only the role of well-known protagonists such as Multatuli but also that of lesser-known "guides" and shows that freemasons were crucial to the organization's founding and development.

Gomes, Patricia D. Over 'natuurgenooten' en 'onwillige honden'. Beeldvorming als instrument voor uitbuiting en onderdrukking in Suriname 1842-1862. Aksant, Amsterdam 2003. 183 pp. € 14.50.
This study, based on a master's thesis, examines the stereotypes and negative impressions of African slaves in Surinam among white Dutch colonial policy makers, civil servants and opinion leaders in the Netherlands and Surinam in the decades before the Dutch abolition of slavery in 1863. Mrs Gomes focuses on the views among Dutch abolitionists rather than on those who preferred to perpetuate slavery, based on the argument that the abolitionists' views were less motivated by self-interest. She maintains that the drive to abolish slavery can be seen as part of a civilization offensive as described by Norbert Elias.

Honderd jaar sociale zekerheid in Nederland. Red.: Jos Berghman, Ad Nagelkerke, Kees Boos [e.a.]. Eburon, Delft 2003. 345 pp. € 25.00.
In June 2001, a symposium was organized in The Hague on the occasion of the centennial of the Dutch Act on Industrial Injuries and addressed the general theme of the relation between social security and social cohesion and integration. The 21 contributions to this volume are based on papers presented at this symposium and deal with various aspects of the Dutch social security system and policy in the past century and its prospects for the coming century. Included are essays on the implementation of social security policies and their relation to labour market policies.

Russia - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Edgar, Adrienne Lynn. Tribal Nation. The Making of Soviet Turkmenistan. Princeton University Press, Princeton [etc.] 2004. xvi, 296 pp. Ill. £24.95.
Examining the Soviet effort in the 1920s and 1930s to form a modern, socialist nation in the Central Asian Republic of Turkmenistan, Professor Edgar focuses on the complex interaction between Soviet policies and indigenous notions of identity, based on tribal, ethnic, gender and social affiliations. She argues that the genealogical ideas that defined premodern Turkmen identity were not easily overcome by the Soviet attempts to construct a socialist modernity but instead often adversely deepened existing group conflicts. See also Niccolò Pianciola's review in this volume, pp. 511-514.

Heinzen, James W. Inventing a Soviet Countryside. State Power and the Transformation of Rural Russia, 1917-1929. [Pitt Series in Russian and East European Studies.] University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, 2004. x, 297 pp. £34.50.
This book examines the clash between the state and the Russian peasantry in the formative years of the Soviet government, after the October revolution of 1917 and before Stalin's forced collectivization of agriculture in 1929. The author closely examines the role of the People's Commissariat of Agriculture in the efforts to reshape production modes and the mentality of the peasantry. By focusing on this institution, the author also seeks to offer insight into the character and fate of the NEP and the political victory of Stalin in 1929.

Horvath, Robert. The Legacy of Soviet Dissent. Dissidents, Democratisation and Radical Nationalism in Russia. [East European Studies.] RoutledgeCurzon, London [etc.] 2005. x, 293 pp. £65.00.
The views of the "foremen of perestroika" in the second half of the 1980s reflect many ideas from the dissident movement of the 1970s. The dissidents were nonetheless subject to fierce overt criticism and were rehabilitated only after the putsch of August 1991. This book seeks to demonstrate that the dissident movement profoundly influenced the course of change and the outcome of that change during the perestroika period, and that dissidents themselves figured prominently in the transition process, in part by editing publications such as Glasnost and Ekspress-Khronika.

Javeline, Debra. Protest and the Politics of Blame. The Russian Response to Unpaid Wages. [Interests, Identities, and Institutions in Comparative Politics.] University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, (Mich.) 2003. xv, 291 pp. £37.50; $60.00.
This book is a study of Russia's wage arrears crisis in the 1990s, which, at its peak, affected around 70 percent of the workforce. It seeks to explain why protest against unpaid wages was rather limited. Using data from a 1998 nationwide survey and other statistical data, the author shows that people's strike and protest behaviour is influenced largely by their understanding of causal relations and specificity in blame attribution.

Lenoe, Matthew. Closer to the Masses. Stalinist Culture, Social Revolution and Soviet Newspapers. [Russian Research Center Studies, Vol. 95.] Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.] 2004. viii, 315 pp. $49.95; £32.95.
This study explores the role of the Soviet newspapers and their journalists during the formative years of the Soviet Union in the creation of a Soviet cultural doctrine that came to be known as socialist realism. According to Professor Lenoe, an important part of the origins of this socialist realism can be traced to the ways the journalists of mass newspapers had started in the 1920s to report on the "heroism" of the socialist industrialization campaigns, thus performing the propaganda tasks assigned to them by the Bolshevist party leadership. See also Hiroaki Kuromiya's review in this volume, p. 506-507.

Lewin, Moshe. The Soviet Century. Verso, London [etc.] 2005. ix, 416 pp. £25.00.
In this history of the USSR, Professor Lewin aims to give an analytical presentation of general aspects of the Soviet system. The first part of the book is devoted to the Stalinist period, part two deals with the period from Khrushchev to Andropov, and the third part broaches the Soviet era as a whole. Drawing heavily on newly available materials, both memoirs and autobiographies, and documentary publications, he aims to highlight key factors such as demography, economics, culture and political repression to analyse the inner mechanisms of the Soviet system.

Litvin, Alter L. and John L.H. Keep. Stalinism. Russian and Western Views at the Turn of the Millennium. Routledge, London [etc.] 2004. 264 pp. £65.00. (Paper: £20.99.)
This study aims to give an overview of the recent historiography on Stalin and Stalinism. In the first part, Professor Litvin gives an overview of the Russian literature on the subject, dealing with, among others, the diverse ideological background of recent historiographical currents, availability of sources and biographical research on Stalin. In the second part, Professor Keep covers the recent English, French and German historiography on Stalinism, including studies on the political system and foreign policy; social developments; gender; and the Stalinist terror. See also Professor Ellman's review in this volume, pp. 503-505.

Nelson, Amy. Music for the Revolution. Musicians and Power in Early Soviet Russia. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park (Penn.) 2004. xvi, 330 pp. Ill. $45.00.
This study deals with the opportunities and restrictions that musicians and musical institutions encountered during the first decades after 1917, describes the conditions affecting musical education, professional identity and the administration of musical life and examines the often contradictory political agendas under which a distinctively Soviet musical culture emerged in the early thirties. The emphasis is on the period of the New Economic Policy, when official policies sought to accommodate the old intelligentsia and to support artistic pluralism. The final chapter addresses the ambiguities of the Cultural Revolution with its attacks on "bourgeois specialists".

Rabinowitch, Alexander. The Bolsheviks Come to Power. The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd. Haymarket Books, Chicago, Illinois; Pluto Press, London [etc.] 2004. xxxiii, 393 pp. Ill. £12.99.
This book describes in detail the events that led to the October revolution of 1917 in Petrograd from the July uprising until the storming of the Winter Palace and the meeting of the Second Congress of Soviets, where Lenin's decrees on peace and land were approved. The author attempts to answer the question as to why the Bolsheviks won the struggle for power. The book was first published in 1976 and was translated into Russian and published in the Soviet Union in 1989.

Zimmerman, Joshua D. Poles, Jews, and the Politics of Nationality. The Bund and the Polish Socialist Party in Late Tsarist Russia, 1892-1914. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison [etc.] 2004. xv, 360 pp. £30.50.
The Polish Socialist Party (PPS), founded in 1892 in Paris by four Polish socialist groups from Congress Poland and abroad, sought social emancipation and equal civil rights for minority nationalities, including Jews, under a democratic Polish republic. The Jewish Labour Bund, founded in 1897 in Vilna, declared that Jews were a nation distinct from Poles and Russians and identified its special mission as the defence of the particular interests of Jewish workers and the struggle for their civil rights and the suspension of anti-Jewish legislation. This book describes and analyses the relationship between the Polish and Jewish revolutionary movements in the Russian empire between 1892 and the outbreak of the First World War.


Ballester, David. Els homes sense nom. L'exili i la clandestinitat de la UGT de Catalunya (1939-1976). Viena Edicions, Barcelona; Fundació Josep Comaposada, Barcelona 2003. 468 pp. Ill. € 18.60.
This is the third edited part of a PhD thesis about the history of the socialist trade union federation Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT) in the Spanish region of Catalonia (see IRSH, 45 (2000), p. 160 for the previous two volumes). This part addresses both the movement in exile in France and Mexico and the underground movement in Catalonia, each with their internal complications and rifts arising from the struggle for power between communists, PSOE, POUM and the Moviment Socialista de Catalunya. The annex at the end of the book features the names of officials and executed members, membership figures in Catalonia, as well as facsimiles of clandestine publications and pseudonyms.

Godicheau, François. La guerre d'Espagne. République et révolution en Catalogne (1936-1939). Odile Jacob, Paris 2004. 459 pp. € 29.00.
In this history of the Spanish Civil War, the author focuses on the social and political developments within the Republican camp in Catalonia. Mr Godicheau aims to go beyond what he considers a strongly politicized historiography of the factional political and ideological struggles on the Republican side. He sketches how the initial social revolution led by the anarchist movement in Catalonia was gradually turned back by a growing tendency towards authoritarianism both among the communist factions and within the libertarian and anarchist factions, as well as within the Confederacíon Nacional del Trabajo (CNT). See also Cesar M. Lorenzo's review in this volume, pp. 510-513.

Recasens Llort, Josep. La repressió franquista a la Ribera d'Ebre (1938-1945). [Colleció El Tinter, 43.] Cossetània Edicions, Valls 2003. 311 pp. € 18.00.
This, which is part of a series, book comprises the list of prisoners from the Catalan district Ribera d'Ebre who were sentenced by a court-martial following the occupation by Franco's troops. The book is arranged alphabetically by village. A statistical breakdown is provided of those tried in each village, listing e.g. gender, age and occupation. The biographical data, accusation and sentence are indicated for each prisoner. Records were retrieved from the court archives for a total of 472 prisoners - of whom over 16 per cent was executed. The author has written a brief introduction about the repression and legal proceedings.

Stradling, Robert. History and Legend: Writing the International Brigades. University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2003. xiv, 282 pp. Ill. £35.00.
This study aims to give a critical analysis of the process of mythologization of the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War by focusing on the large number of British intellectuals, and more particularly the writers, who went to Spain. Professor Stradling, who previously wrote a study on the Irish in the Spanish Civil War (see IRSH, 46 (2001), p. 126), explores the relationship between the Second Republic and international creative intellectuals and the ways this relationship was exploited for recruitment and propaganda purposes. He concludes by analysing how the Spanish Civil War has developed into in a struggle between the autonomy claims of "art" on the one hand and demands of socio-political commitment on the other.


Dahlqvist, Hans. Fri att konkurrera, skyldig att producera. En ideologikritisk granskning av SAF 1902-1948. [Acta Wexionensia Nr 31/2003; Humaniora]. Växjö University Press, Växjö 2003. 234 pp. S.kr 160.00 (plus postage).
This dissertation (Växjö University, 2003) addresses the Swedish Employer's Association (SAF) and its ideology in the first half of the twentieth century. According to the author, the SAF may be regarded as one of the most important ideological and political actors in Sweden during the twentieth century. Dr Dahlqvist analyses how SAF reconciled its alleged strong support for personal freedom with its demands that workers adopt specific virtues. SAF's ideology entailed freedom for employers and others who would benefit from competition at work but dictated high moral standards for workers, as well as a willingness to compete with each other at work.


Leemann, Marianne. Totengräber der Demokratie. Kommunisten, Faschisten und Nationalsozialisten in der Deutschschweizer Presse von 1918-1923. Chronos, Zürich 2003. 632 pp. Ill. € 49.80.
This dissertation (University of Zurich, 2002) examines the reactions in the mainstream German-language Swiss press to the revolutionary events at the end of World War I and the role of the communists in and outside Switzerland, as well as the rise of rightist extremism manifested as fascism and Nazism, in the period November 1917 until the end of 1923. Based on a detailed examination of the liberal Neue Zürcher Zeitung, the social democratic Das Volksrecht and the Catholic-conservative Das Vaterland, Dr Leeman analyses how the politically moderate public opinion assessed anti-democratic extremism from both sides of the political spectrum.